Casualty Data Card:

An effort to array names by tabulation in a Sperry-Univac System, especially useful for culling out resolved cases as identifications were made in the mid-1950s. These cards are now "antiques," since we can now do name comparisons in Word and Excel formats, but the originals or paper copies are still kept in Individual Deceased Personnel Files (IDPFs) at JPAC.

Casualty Report: Military service form or letter that documents the casualty status of a serviceman. An internal notification which began several necessary processes: flagging the casualty to a specific battle zone, notification of the family, assessment of benefit payments, and even comparison of name and some personal data to Unknown recoveries. Casualty reports were often amended as missing men were found to be captured or to have died. Located in the IDPF at JPAC.

Casualty Status Card: This was the manual equivalent, for pen entries, of the Casualty Data Card. The Casualty Status Card was especially useful as additional information came in, for it became a single point of cross-reference as other documents were updated. These cards are handy even now, for they often show the first stages of information collection, even highlighting past name errors. Located in the IDPF at JPAC.

Debriefs from Returning POWs: Dossiers at the National Archives at College Park MD containing reports on a POW's experience in captivity. Extracts from the debriefs containing information on other POWs are in the IDPFs of those POWs. The IDPFs are located at JPAC. There were different series and formats of debriefings, and we are still searching for some of them. Armed Forces Far East (AFFE) 545 sheets were often drawn from these reports, to supplement others done directly by returning POWs. These by-name sheets were handy for collecting information of specific missing men. Often 20 or 30 AFFE 545s could be drawn from a "good" debriefing.

Field Search Case (FSC): Service Graves Registration plan and report on the search for unaccounted for servicemen from a loss incident, located at JPAC. Names of men lost in the same battle were collected together with maps and search instructions for graves registration teams. Later, as bodies were found, or men returned alive, names were deleted from the FSC. FSC areas in South Korea have been thoroughly searched over the years, but those in North Korea are still "open" working documents that our recovery teams consult whenever they are allowed to search. One great advantage to the FSC system is that it greatly reduces the chance of a name being lost in the system, since every missing man should be attributed to an FSC, either series "F" for land actions, "A" for aircraft losses, or "I" for all other cases.

Summary ("Scrub") Sheet: DPMO report on the serviceman's loss incident. Ongoing reporting to families is done by scrub sheets and attached maps. These create a summary of information from the other sources cited. They also give a family a basis for asking follow-on questions. Whenever we do a scrub sheet, either new or an update, we go back to the original source documents, just to be sure that we've used any new information we've received.

"Names of Other Men" who went missing on the same day from the same unit: a list of unaccounted for servicemen associated with an FSC and an appendix of it. These lists are handy for men who might have been lost together on battlefield, or who might have marched north together as POWs. Sometimes we can apply information from one case to help resolve or further develop another. After returning of POWs at war's end, the name lists of most FSCs were rewritten, since so much new information was received.

"Further Information" on other men in casualty incidents: documents in this realm may include press reporting, references in official service histories located at Service History Centers, information from foreign archives. The services have their own historical files, and sometimes this information proves useful. Most of the time, it is not a by-name mention, but service histories help to build context that can be useful to recovery teams.

Sketch maps are especially useful.

Joint POW/MIA Account(ing) Command Holdings (JPAC): Individual Deceased Personnel Files (IDPFs) and Field Search Case (FSC) files. JPAC holds these files, and Service Casualty Offices and DPMO have access to them. So, the general format for an individual is for an IDPF and for an FSC extract to be combined and scanned into CARIS (see individual entries).

Reports from CIA and NSA (including subject's name or possibility of a match): Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency information. In most cases, men lost on battlefields will not appear by name in CIA or NSA documents, but POW names often appeared in enemy radio broadcasts. These, however, were usually no more than confirmations of capture or of death in captivity. Even so, useful details occasionally emerge.

293 Deceased File: This is the IDPF. Unaccounted for serviceman's file containing Casualty Reports, Casualty Data and Status Cards, extracts from POW debriefs, Reports of Death, letters to the NOK, dental diagrams, reports of non-recoverability from 1955, and FSC extracts. All IDPFs for active cases from the Korean war are at JPAC, and their key documents have been scanned into the CARIS system (note below). Many of the individual documents cited here are kept in the IDPF, and it becomes the principal point of reference for continuing queries into the case. IDPFs for resolved cases are retired to the Washington National Records Center at Suitland MD, but even these are consulted frequently, since men lost in the same action may be able to provide collateral information even after their own identifications.

Personnel Records: National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis (NPRC) has individual files covering training, promotions, discipline, casualty information (including on many occasions witness statements), and other personal data (note: about 75 percent of the Korean War files were destroyed in a fire in 1973). At NPRC there are Army unit rosters and Army/Air Force morning reports which reflect the historical activities of the unit, e.g., movement of the unit, casualties and other events. Morning reports are also useful in verifying dates of loss where surviving men later submit claims of POW status.

Entries in C.A.R.I.S. by possibility or by name (JPAC): CARIS (Centralized Accounting Repository and Information System) is a data base at JPAC that contains IDPF files.